The 20th Century was born under the sign of technological modernisation and the prominence of the new urban popular classes. New tensions arose, and new horizons scanned. Photography and cinema were the media that represented these changes. Spain joined the process while in the midst of a deep crisis affecting social, political and economic structures. The problem was not only to rescue the country from centuries of delayed development, but also to solve the eternal conflict between tradition and progress, between conserving a specific historical identity and social modernisation.