List of selected artworks. Maps for the tour in the museum

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  • View of the exhibition
    18 december, 1997 - 26 january, 1998

    Philip-Lorca di Corcia (Hartford, USA, 1953) is an American photographer who in recent years has known how to extend linguistic and artistic photography. In all his work -consisting of three broad series, this exhibition is a selection of works from the last two- a new insight into the treatment of common but fundamental genres is discovered: portraits, everyday scenes and photojournalism. In all di Corcia’s pieces the heritage of classical pictorial representation is seen, as well as an acceptance of film aesthetics and culture. His photographs are defined by the obviousness of his themes, the simplicity of his compositions and the recurrence of compositional artifice, challenging the paradigm of the decisive moment.

  • Josep de Togores. Couple à la plage (Couple on the Beach), 1922. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    25 november, 1997 - 15 january, 1998

    In the path taken by the artistic revival on the Spanish scene in the early decades of the twentieth century -where links to the European avant-garde are strengthened- the figure Josep de Togores (Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, 1893 - Barcelona, 1970) stands out for his defence and understanding of Cubism, in the words of specialist Eugenio Carmona, as "a pro rule and form painting" and for the way this is translated into his work. This exhibition focuses on Togores’ artistic production during the period of 1914 and 1931, years in which he moves in the avant-garde circles: from the reinterpretation of noucentisme and Joaquín Suyner’s work, in the light of Cubism as a classical language, until his extended stay in Paris (1919-1931), which included short trips to Catalonia. For this, the curator of the exhibition -Josep Casamartina- sets up a chronological and stylistic journey through Togores’ work, divided into five groups: "Around new art (1914-1918)", "Magic Realism (1919-1924)" "Search and eclecticism (1924-1927)", "Surrealism (1928-1930)" and "Return to figuration (1931)".

  • Jacques Lipchitz, Harlequin with Mandoline in Oval, 1923. Sculpture. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    25 november, 1997 - 12 january, 1998

    Jacques Lipchitz (Druskininkai, Lithuania 1891 - Capri, Italy, 1973) is one of the pioneers of Cubism in Sculpture, along with artists such as Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Alexander Archipenko and Henri Laurens. The artist from Lithuania moved to Paris in 1909, where he consolidated his vocation as a sculptor.

  • Exhibition view. Mark Tobey, 1997
    11 november, 1997 - 12 january, 1998

    Mark Tobey (Centerville, United States, 1890-Basel, Switzerland, 1976) discovers the possibility of dynamically disintegrating forms, impressed by Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) by Marcel Duchamp - which he sees at the Armory Show in Chicago in 1913. Without accepting absolute abstraction as a system or purpose, from 1935 Tobey develops a pictorial practice that owes much to the calligraphy which he calls white writing and qualifies as "nervous painting." In it, a network of strokes links the different elements until the composition is restructured (Flow of the Night, 1943; New York, 1944). In the words of Kosme de Barañano, curator of the exhibition together with Matthias Bärmann, "this kind of lattice covers the picture plane right across its surface. This game of optical rhythms ... they don’t create the picture they write it. The box becomes a field of action and is no longer a place of representation."

  • Exhibition view. Antoni Abad. Medidas de emergencia, 1997
    30 October - 8 December, 1997

    Medidas de emergencia puts on display Antoni Abad’s (Lleida, 1956) artistic evolution in regards to the use of new media. In this case, the tour passes from sculptural practice to video. Experimentation with media does not mean the abandonment of sculpture; on the contrary, he strikes a balance between both practices, including a combination of the two on many occasions. By introducing new procedures and display resources, the possibilities of analysis are considerably widened, allowing other relationships between the piece and the spectator to form. This turning point in Abbot’s career occurs in the mid-nineties and coincides with his stay in Canada in 1994 at The Banff Centre for the Arts.

  • Fernand Léger. The Staircase (Second State), 1914. Oil on canvas. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid
    28 october, 1997 - 12 january, 1998

    Fernand Léger (Argentan, France, 1881-Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 1955) is present in the two events that mark the emergence of Cubism: Salón de los Independientes and Salón de Otoño in 1911. The poet and essayist Guillaume Apollinaire, in his Méditations esthétiques. Les peintres cubistes (1913), includes Léger in Orphic Cubism, which he defines as "The art of painting new compositions with elements that are not borrowed from visual reality, but which are entirely created by the artist and endowed with a powerful reality … It is pure art".

  • Pablo Picasso. Mujer en el Jardín, 1929-30. Sculpture. Museo Nacional Centro de arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    21 october, 1997 - 11 january, 1998

    The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía is collaborating with the Mexican Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes -as they did in 1996 for the ¿Buñuel! The Eye of the Century exhibition- to present at the Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City a selection of paintings, sculptures and drawings by the major Spanish artists of the twentieth century. This exhibition is a reflection of Spanish avant-garde key historical figures as well as the most celebrated artists of the second half of the twentieth century. Also present in the exhibition are the creations of artists who have achieved great relevance in the current scene. In this way, the Mexican public is invited to construct a global vision of the Spanish art scene over the last hundred years through this exhibition divided into three chapters.

  • Exhibition view. José María Sicilia. L'Horabaixa, 1997
    16 october, 1997 - 11 january, 1998

    L'Horabaixa is the title for the exhibition where José María Sicilia (Madrid, 1954) faces the moment when dusk becomes light -the moment this Majorcan saying refers to- with the brightness of the exhibition space. At the same time, the difficulty of naming the elements in the twilight finds its counterpart in the poetic recreation of a garden or the loose pages of a book, subject to the effects of the light, transparency and glazing caused by the wax.

  • Exhibition view. László Moholy-Nagy. Fotogramas, 1922-1943, 1997
    14 october, 1997 - 2 december, 1997

    Analogous to the constructivist trend (where he excels as a painter), the turning point in László Moholy-Nagy’s (1895-1946) career and concept of art lies is in his participation in the Congress of the International and Progressive Artists’ Union (Dusseldorf, May 1922). He publishes his first programmatic text in the summer of 1922: Produktion-Reproduktion, which echoes the aesthetic and the project of "man-machine" and in which he argues that film and photography are the new tools that will achieve the completeness of vision. In this way, the exhibition presented by the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía focuses on his stills -the impression of a single shot on paper without a camera- and brings together a body of work that comes entirely from the Folkwang Museum in Essen (Germany) in which he illustrates the manner in which his theoretical formulation becomes detailed and evolves over a twenty-year career.

  • Exhibition view. Marina Núñez. La locura, 1997
    17 September - 20 October, 1997

    Throughout the history of art, creation and madness seem to be intrinsically linked. Plato talked of two types of madness: clinical and creative, associating the latter with prophets and poets, and since then creation has been constantly viewed as the product of distinctive or unique psychological states that create monsters (art). If going against the grain and distancing oneself from set structures and rationales is madness, then the artist feels at home in this particular state of difference. The work of Marina Núñez (Palencia, 1966) for this exhibition represents the end of her distinct approach to the world of the feminine representation of madness, something she has been addressing over last few years. Núñez does not tackle this anomalous state morbidly, nor does she depict it with brutality; madness is explored in a metaphorical sense, mirroring a distorted image of the female in a world she is distanced from. Madness is addressed as an alternative, a state with which to understand and counter the dominant idea of sanity in an unjust and contradictory world.

  • Poster for the Encuentros de Pamplona, 1972. Biblioteca y Centro de Documentación, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid
    15 july, 1997 - 14 september, 1997
    Program: Biblioteca y Centro de Documentación

    Los Encuentros de Pamplona (The Pamplona Meetings) (June 26-July 3, 1972) were the turning point in a national artistic evolution in the last years of the Franco dictatorship, in addition to noting a symbolic end to the predominance of informalist painting and abstraction, accepted and used by official cultural policy. The meetings came about from private initiative to support contemporary music creations, sponsored by the Huarte family. From the organisation of a musical event by the Alea Group (Luis de Pablo and José Luis Alexanco), the project quickly grows into an international festival where the new artistic, poetic and cinematographic forms accommodate themselves. The fact that it should be the artists themselves who create and design is insisted upon.

    Biblioteca y centro de documentación
  • Exhibition view. Arte MADI, 1997
    1 july, 1997 - 20 october, 1997

    The origin of MADI art can be found in the educational and informative work in the defence and practice of a pure geometric art, of constructive and universal values, which Joaquín Torres García undertakes on his return to Montevideo (1934). In Buenos Aires, around 1940, a first group of artists and poets, among which are: Carmelo Arden Quin, Rhod Rothfuss, Gyula Kosice, Edgar Bayley, Tomás Maldonado and Martin Blaszko, advocate a non-figurative art which has a geometric basis and without reference to phenomenal reality. In that way, as Rothfuss notes, "A painting should be something that begins and ends with itself". Soon after they launch an editorial (Arturo. Abstract Arts Magazine, 1944) and narrative structures which define what are to be their most characteristic traits: rejection of the orthogonal frame in favour of an irregular one, an irregular cut; sculptures featuring real or virtual movement -fixing on Torres Garcia’s articulated toys- and the use of flat colours. In this way, the concept of invention and the principle that the work is and does not represent, express or mean, their work is the result of the confluence of playfulness with geometric rigor. In the words of the curator of the exhibition, Maria Lluïsa Borràs, "the artists rationally work in the perceptual domain, operating with the interaction of forms and their impact on space, trying to find a language accessible to all, objective and therefore of a social being.”

  • Daniel Vázquez Díaz. Eugenio D'Ors, 1926. Drawing. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    22 may, 1997 - 30 september, 1997

    The writer and philosopher Eugenio d'Ors (Barcelona, 1882 - Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1954) is one of the key figures of art criticism in Spain. He is the creator of the Noucentisme concept, which includes a large group of Catalan artists who are Renaixença (Renaissance) heirs. d'Ors has a wealth of literary, critical and historiographical production. His early writings, published in 1899, are followed by the book La muerte de Isidro Nonell (1905), which marks the beginning of a fruitful career and establishes him as an indispensable reference for Spanish intellectuals in the first half of the twentieth century.

    Biblioteca y centro de documentación
  • Exhibition view. Lipchitz. 1891-1973. Un mundo sorprendido en el espacio, 1997
    20 may, 1997 - 2 september, 1997

    Jacques Lipchitz (Druskieniki, Lithuania, 1891 - Capri, Italy, 1973) is part of the group of innovative sculpture artists which also includes Constantin Brancusi, Henri Laurens, Ossip Zadkine and Amedeo Modigliani. The avant-garde sculptural language evolves from Cubist discourse and betters the modelling technique and the late-romantic expressionist aesthetics imposed by Auguste Rodin.

  • Exhibition view. En la piel de toro, 1997
    14 may, 1997 - 8 september, 1997

    From the work of twelve prominent artists, En la piel de toro brings together the modernisation of Spanish and Portuguese art practices from a common time when the Iberian Peninsula was considered an artistic rather than a physical geography. This approach draws on political events and social transformation which take place in both countries during the late seventies: in Portugal, the Carnation Revolution in 1974 and in Spain, the beginning of the transition to democracy in 1976. This results in an innovative aesthetic and artistic openness, and in many cases connects with international scenarios and movements.

  • Manuel Rivera. Retablo para las víctimas de la violencia, 1977-1979. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    22 april, 1997 - 16 june, 1997

    The commitment to abstraction coming from cultural policy defined by Luis González Robles and José Luis Fernandez del Amo -coordinators of the creation and management of the Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo in the Fifties and Sixties- reaches its peak with the group El Paso (1957-1960) which Manuel Rivera (Granada, 1927 - Madrid, 1995) is a founding member of.

  • Exhibition view. Gerardo Rueda. collages, 1997
    15 april, 1997 - 7 july, 1997

    Gerardo Rueda (Madrid, 1926-1996) turns the practice of collage into an experimental laboratory; with tools and materials that are different from the usual paint brushes and pigments he is able to make a painting without paint.

  • Robert Motherwell. Threatening Presence, 1976. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    5 march, 1997 - 2 may, 1997

    The position that Robert Motherwell (Aberdeen, Washington, 1915 - Provincetown, Mass., 1991) takes and maintains throughout his career differs markedly from that of his peers at the New York School. Compared to them, at least three aspects stand out in Motherwell: the practice of collage, his interest in literature and history -which is seen in the events in his paintings- and that his attention was drawn towards Europe, as much by the history of painting as by the great masters of the twentieth century, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Paul Klee and especially Joan Miró, from whom he learns that art arises from the process.

  • Exhibition view. Rachel Whiteread. One Hundred Spaces, 1997
    11 february, 1997 - 21 april, 1997

    The work created by Rachel Whiteread (London, 1963) and collected for this exhibition -twenty-two pieces and projects carried out between 1988 and 1996- focus on and illustrate the tensions of an era that questioned minimalist ideas and relevant historical concepts in sculptural practice, such as the idea of monument.

  • Exhibition view. Juan Soriano. Retrospective 1937-1997, 1997
    4 february, 1997 - 2 may, 1997

    We can see the poetics that characterises Juan Soriano’s (Guadalajara, Mexico, 1920 - Mexico City, 2006) work in his early paintings, where Mexican popular culture and poetic and artistic projects led by the renovators of Mexican art, the European and American avant-garde, particularly Surrealism (Lola Álvarez Bravo, Orozco, Sequeiros, Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, Octavio Paz, Agustín Lazo, Xavier Villaurrutia), and by Spanish artists and intellectuals in exile in Mexico (Ramón Gaya, José Moreno Villa, José Bergamin, María Zambrano) all converge. For the writer and poet Octavio Paz, "the work of Juan Soriano is the fortunate fusion of the three powers of art: tradition, poetic fantasy and visual imagination."

  • Exhibition view. Vicente Rojo. Obra sobre papel y Gran escenario primitivo, 1997
    28 january, 1997 - 30 march, 1997

    As well as a for being a painter, Vicente Rojo (Barcelona, 1938) stands out in the Mexican cultural scene in the second half of the twentieth century with a long and distinguished career as an editor, designer and set designer. After settling in Mexico in 1949, his first solo exhibition comes ten years later with work that is based on the use of geometry as a framework and promise of order rather than rule. For this reason, Rojo presents himself as a rejuvenator and suggests a break with local tradition, dominated by the figuration of great muralists like José Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros; being influenced by Rufino Tamayo.

  • Exhibition view. Vija Celmins. Works 1964-96, 1997
    21 january, 1997 - 24 march, 1997

    When Vija Celmins (Riga, Russia, 1938) begins his career in the United States in the early sixties, his work exemplifies the possibility of a style different to the dominant inheritance bequeathed by American Abstract Expressionism. Nevertheless, in some of his drawings and paintings the influence of Jasper Johns in the resignification (or the neutrality of signs) of everyday objects can be seen. With over seventy works, including drawings, paintings and objects, this exhibition illustrates the artistic ideals of Celmins, already visible in 1964 and based on a litany of principles of austerity and essentiality, "not composition, gestures, artificial colour, deformation, anxiety or effort, or echo (impassive paintings)."The tour not only allows us to discovery these principles, but it shows the dispute between figure and field and how he manages to merge the two terms in such a way that the image becomes the picture. As noted by James Lingwood, curator of the exhibition, "there is no longer a central figure that draws attention to a certain part of the picture, no hierarchy of the image on the surface."

  • Julio González. Passiflora, ca. 1896-1898. Sculpture. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    14 january, 1997 - 30 march, 1997

    Both Francisco Druuio (Valladolid, 1868 - Paris, 1940) and Julio González (Barcelona, 1876 - Paris, 1942) live the Parisian experience of the first decades of the century and share a fondness for jewellery which they practice on the margins of their artistic work. The two artists undertake a formal investigation which is often described as secondary to their contributions but which is important because it helps to reveal the iconographic interests of both as well as their chosen affinities.