List of selected artworks. Maps for the tour in the museum





  • Daniel Vázquez Díaz. Las cuadrillas de Frascuelo, Lagartijo y Mazzantini, 1936-1938. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    25 may, 1993 - 18 august, 1993

    For the exhibition dedicated to Daniel Vázquez Díaz (Nerva, Huelva, 1882 - Madrid, 1969) the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía is commissioning a project aimed at presenting the entire collection that it preserves for a determined artist. In the case of Vázquez Díaz that number reaches eighty works, and includes paintings, drawings and engravings, a large number of which are on loan to the Museo Provincial de Huelva. The strong desire of this artist to study at the Academy of San Fernando, settling in Madrid in 1903, marks the start of a career whose next step is Paris, where he learns how to submit representation to a geometric synthesis from Paul Cézanne. His assumption of cubist language turns him into one of the leading revivalists of landscape painting in Spain, developing his career both on Spanish territory and in Paris.

  • Antonio López. Los novios, 1955. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    04 may, 1993 - 19 july, 1993

    Everyday landscapes, understood in the broadest sense, are the core theme running through the painting of Antonio López (Tomelloso, Toledo, 1936), the representative par excellence of the wave Spanish realists in the second half of the twentieth century. They shape the painter's imagination, and include not only cityscapes - either the streets of his home town or the streets Madrid, the dominant location from 1960 onwards - but also the corners of his house, his garden and his family. This anthological exhibition, made up of sixty works including paintings, sculptures (free-standing, reliefs and three-dimensional reliefs) and drawings, traces López' career, from his early works combining figure and fantasy, such as Mujeres mirando los aviones (1954), to the strict realism that becomes his permanent language in the seventies, seen in Nevera de hielo (1966), and maintained right up to his most recent work.

  • Exhibition view. Parallel Visions. Modern Artists and Marginal Art, 1993
    February 9 - May 9, 1993

    The works that make up the exhibition Visiones paralelas. Artistas modernos y arte marginal (Parallel Visions. Modern Artists and Marginal Art) encompass questions on the limits of art and the nature of artistic activity - while incorporating romantic traditions and examining the same definition of what art is, this debate looms over twentieth century culture. The studies of Sigmund Freud devoted to the artistic-therapeutic production of psychiatric patients at the beginning of the century and the publication of doctor Hans Prinzhorn's book Bildnerei der Geisteskranken (1922) (Artistry of the Mentally Ill), which includes a collection of art created by the mentally ill and serves as an introduction to their images, form the primary foundations of the search and defence of a new model and paradigm of artistic creativity throughout the first half of the century, expounded by an ongoing reinvention that is not tarnished by established or received culture and traditions. By way of a chronological journey through twentieth-century art, and through premises of dialogues on formal analogies and historical relations, this exhibition endeavours to render the close relationship and interchanges between modern art and the artistic output of marginalised, alienated, mentally ill, self-taught and compulsive visionary figures.

  • Joan Hernández Pijuan. Sobre un paisaje verde, 1991-1992. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    2 february - 5 april, 1993

    Beyond the influences of Abstraction and Informalism from his first phase, Joan Hernández Pijuan (Barcelona, 1931) defines and bases his own pictorial syntax on the reconsideration of space, understood as an element of composition that stems from the positive consideration of emptiness. The idea of the void is consolidated as a pictorial space through landscape painting, represented in the pieces, and the accompanying selection of graphic works, that comprise this exhibition, realised between 1972 and 1992. This collection bears witness to the language the painter uses, leaning towards the virtually abstract simplification of the motifs and intimate spaces represented.

  • Joan Miró. Pájaros en el espacio, 1946. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    19 january, 1993 - 22 march, 1993

    Poetry is the model from which Joan Miró's (Barcelona, 1893 - Mallorca, 1983) unique artistic language stems, particularly from his connection to the poets and artists from the sphere of the Surrealist movement - André Masson and Michel Leiris, or those they admired such as Conde de Lautréamont (Isidore Lucien Ducasse), Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé and Guillaume Apollinaire. Visual poetry and the freedom of the use and arrangement of words in verses enable him to “deconstruct” the artistic language. On the hundredth anniversary of Miró's birth, this exhibition endeavours to look back at the origin and evolution of his unique artistic syntax, revolving around the series Constelaciones (1940-1941); the exhibition's curator, Margit Rowell, defines the near one-hundred-work exhibition as the, “genesis and evolution of the constellated syntax.”

  • Exhibition view. Brice Marden. Cold Mountain, 1993
    12 january, 1993 - 15 march, 1993

    At the end of the fifties, with the waning dominance of North American Abstract Expressionism, numerous artists start to find in Asian art a new medium with which to revive abstract art. The exhibition of Brice Marden (Bronxville, New York, 1938) typifies this new road to abstraction whilst also showing how the works exhibited here represent a radical turnaround in the artists output. Marden undertakes the project Cold Mountain (1988-1991) at a time of personal crisis and artistic maturity, he is drawn towards calligraphy and Chinese poetry and is influenced by Abstract Expressionist approaches and the work of Jackson Pollock.

  • Exhibition view. Susana Solano, 1992
    10 december, 1992 - 17 february, 1993

    Leading protagonist in the renewal of Spanish sculpture in the Eighties and internationally acknowledged (Kasel documentary, 1987 and 1992 Venice Biennale 1988), Susana Solano (Barcelona, 1946) is exhibiting in Madrid a selection of sixty-five works that invite us to look back at her career. Her early sculptural works date back to 1979, at that time Solano learns to combine the formal requirements of Minimalism - artistic lessons from Carl André, Richard Serra and Donald Judd - and autobiographical and subjective themes and allusions, leading to a sculpture that demands a symbolic reading and is "mistakenly monumental" in the words of Teresa Blanch, curator of the exhibition. In this sense, there is a comparison of Solano with Julio González, "she shares a search for expressive tension between the inside and outside and the abstract creation of symbolic spaces with the Catalan artist."

  • Iván Zulueta. Arrebato, 1979. Video. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    01 december, 1992 - 18 january, 1993

    With the desire to give continuity to the project initiated at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía two years ago, Bienal de la imagen en movimiento ´92. Visionarios españoles repeats a similar call to the previous exhibition, but with the difference that all the selected, displayed and projected works are creations by Spanish artists. Even though the biennial has been designed as an exhibition, it is complemented by a series of film and video screenings, "which are a logical expansion of the exhibition", as noted by the curators of the exhibition, Carlota Álvarez Basso and Joseba M . Lopezortega.

  • Antoni Tàpies. Pintura, 1955. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    06 october, 1992 - 06 december, 1992
  • Wifredo Lam. Natividad, 1947. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    29 september, 1992 - 14 december, 1992

    Breaking with the clichés that have made up the painter Wifredo Lam’s (Sagua la Grande, Cuba, 1902-Paris, 1982) career is one of the purposes of this exhibition. The artistic biography of the painter regarding his Cuban origins, his life in Spain, his direct influence on Picasso's work and his friendship with the surrealist group in Paris and in the United States have left out important elements that serve to provide a more complete reading of Lam. In this way then, this exhibition aims to make this into a debate, which remains throughout the first half of the twentieth century, where modernity confronts the primitive. In the words of art critic Gerardo Mosquera the purpose of this exhibition, consisting of more than seventy pieces has to be a reading of Lam's work "in the context of anticolonial struggles and of the emancipation of the peoples of the Third World". In this way, the aim is to "break dualisms and recognise hybridisations, and “in-authenticities” typical of postcolonial dynamics" he adds.

  • Juan Dolcet. Manolo Millares, 1971. Photography. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    07 july, 1992 - 28 october, 1992
    Program: Biblioteca y Centro de Documentación

    Since the beginning of the Nineties the Centro de Documentación (Documentation Centre) and Biblioteca (Library) of the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía has been carrying out a series of documentary-style exhibitions inside a small exhibition space.

    Biblioteca y Centro de Documentación
  • Exhibition view. Peter Halley, 1992
    23 june - 31 august, 1992

    This exhibition allows us to see that within Peter Halley’s (New York, 1953) work lies a critique that goes beyond criticism, it reaches the deepest of geometric art, postmodern culture and the sociocultural and artistic heritage in which he has grown. For this, he uses the very formal resources found in abstract painting and Expressionism (Colour-field painting and net transitions between colour-field hard edge), and other methods characteristic of pop (redefinition of the concept of series and work created with the help of collaborators)

  • Exhibition view. Pop Art, 1992
    23 june, 1992 - 14 september, 1992

    Pop Art, understood as a manifestation at an international level which bursts into existence in the late fifties has no manifesto and is heterogeneous in technique, ideas and the means it employs; it constitutes the axis that is articulated by the exhibition at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. This is a movement that is primarily urban - it has a contemporary development in the more important cities involved in the art scene in the second half of the twentieth century: New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, London, Paris, Dusseldorf, Rome and Milan - it establishes a special link with mass culture, which it seeks to reflect. In this mass culture it finds its themes, its vocabulary, its icons, its artistic resources and even its means of diffusion, converting the information overload and visual stimuli that assault the passerby, the spectator and the consumer in their daily lives, into the engines of their work. Pop comes as a shock to traditional art in its broadest sense (media, institutions, education, notion of the artist, authorship and even unique work) and also to what it had immediately proceeded (abstract expressionism and informal art). Screen printing, collage or the use of pre-existing images imply a criticism of the artist’s subjectivity, avoiding recognition (leaving a mark) of their involvement in the work of art. Also, in their reaction against good taste and high culture, there are many times when kitsch is recovered as the peak in aesthetics.

  • Carmen Laffon. Coto Doñana (El coto desde Sanlúcar), ca. 1977. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    13 may, 1992 - 13 july, 1992

    Within the so-called Spanish realist painting of the second half of the twentieth century, Carmen Laffón (Seville, 1934) stands out for her pieces where objects and everyday scenes become an excuse to paint intimate and emotional atmospheres, which reveal an existence that moves at a placid and lonely rate. Over a career spaning more than thirty years, the themes that have dominated her works are landscapes and still life. She also painted and sketched portraits from sculptures, which is introduced in the mid-sixties.

  • Exhibition view. Clyfford Still (1904 – 1980), 1992
    7 april - 1 june, 1992

    True to Clyfford Still's (Grandin, North Dakota, 1904 - Baltimore, Maryland, 1980) wish that his work be preserved and exhibited as a whole, the Albright-Knox Art Gallery (Buffalo, USA) and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art house the most significant collections of his painting. This exhibition brings together an unprecedented ensemble of thirty five canvases from these two collections, enabling Still's work to be contemplated while unearthing his complex and maverick nature. Although disconnected from any influences and the exhibition and commercial circles forging Abstract Expressionism, around 1945 he becomes associated with Peggy Guggenheim and Betty Parsons, exhibiting in their respective galleries, and strikes up a friendship with Mark Rothko as well as forming relationships Robert Motherwell and Barnett Newman, among others. His stern and disciplined character is defined by the control he has over his work and its sales and over his participation in exhibitions and their respective catalogues.

  • Exhibition view. Rosemarie Trockel, 1992
    31 march, 1992 - 17 may, 1992

    In the nineties critical art starts to take centre stage in the exploits of a generation that are undoubtedly moving away from the constraints of genre, medium and media, continuing the trend started in the sixties by artists such as Joseph Beuys (questioning traditional artistic materials) and Andy Warhol (who established the direct relationship between art, consumption and assembly line production); moreover, there are numerous cases in which critical value ends up as an aesthetic category. Rosemarie Trockel (Schwerte, Germany, 1952) is one of the forerunners of this generation. Intent on questioning images, signs and messages commonly agreed upon by culture and tradition, Trockel's works aim to reflect on the possible alternatives locked in signs, bearing witness to meaning not as an inherent factor, but as something unstable, an historical and contextually conditioned attribute.

  • Exhibition view. Marcel Broodthaers, 1992
    March 24 - June 1, 1992

    The start of the sixties means the beginning of a period dominated by critical and even subversive attitudes “against art ideology and art that becomes ideology”, as Catherine David, the joint curator alongside Veronique Dabin, puts it. The themes, mediums and materials used (non-artistic for the most part), united in one common critical attitude against “the institution”, bear witness to the will of the creators to push the aesthetic act to the limit in a time of advanced capitalism. This is the context in which Marcel Broodthaers (Brussels, 1924 - Cologne, Germany, 1976) appears, working in Paris as an up-and-coming writer and art critic.

  • Exhibition view. Visionary Switzerland, 1992
    10 march - 18 may, 1992

    In this exhibition the bizarre and heterogeneous are superimposed on the idea of national art, putting the so-called existence of a stylistic category referred to as the artistic expression of the nation's spirit, in this case Switzerland's, in crisis. Suiza visionaria (Visionary Switzerland) brings together work from over fifty Swiss artists from divergent formal and aesthetic approaches (Abstract Constructivism, Surrealism, Conceptual Art, Kinetic Art and Neo-dadaism) and includes a highly diverse selection of artists, starting from the fifteenth century with Niklaus von Flüe then moving through to Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Meret Oppenheim, Markus Raetz, Jean Tinguenly and Daniel Spoerri and finishing up at Caspar Wolf and Heinrich Füssli.

  • March 3 - April 19, 1992

    The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía presents one of the most preeminent Venezuelan artists, whose work and character are determined by the construction of an artistic identity based on the notion of the “noble savage”, in the first half of the century, Armando Reverón (Caracas, 1889-1954). Once he completes his academic education, Reverón travels to Barcelona and Madrid, in 1911, and a few years later to Paris, where his interest is not in the transgression of language and the academic representation of the Cubist avant-garde, but in retracing Post-impressionism and landscape painting based on principles of light. Upon returning to Caracas his alienation from artistic circles results in his voluntary withdrawal to the margins of civic and social centres and from 1923 onwards his farm-studio in Macuto becomes the setting for his painting.

  • Exhibition view. Richard Serra, 1992
    January 28 - March 29, 1992

    In Richard Serra (San Francisco, 1939), twentieth century sculpture has one of the craftsman behind the revival of its innate values: weight, mass, monumentality, a desire for permanence, who through his sculptural expression incites the active consideration of the viewer and formulates a necessary relationship between sculpture and space. Although Serra emerges on the New York art scene at the end of the sixties as a Minimalist artist alongside Carl André and Sol Lewitt, he soon expresses his desire to: “Escape from the theory of good form (and the opposing figure-ground it is based on)”, as the art critic and historian, Yves-Alain Bois, indicates. His first works display an artistic interest in the possibilities raw and unused materials (rubber, neon, leather, lead), which can be appreciated in the piece Belts (1966-1967). The conception and arrangement of these works highlight the rejection of idealised sculptural practice placed on a pedestal (involving a static sculpture with one unique central viewpoint), explored further in his later work which displays an intrinsic transitive nature, as is the case in the sculpture Walzstrasse I (1983). Its main aim is to consider the redefinition of the space it is located in and participate in the viewer's spacial experience, leading them to compare proportions.

  • Exhibition view. Robert Gober, 1992
    14 january, 1992 - 08 march, 1992

    Robert Gober (Wallingford, Connecticut, 1954) stands out for his vindication of radical subjectivity at a time when, by and large, artistic expression distils strategies of modern and post-modern thought on formal and theoretical problems and is in line with Neo-expressionist pictorial practice. His work also has strong autobiographical undertones, favouring emotion over concept. Catherine David, the exhibition's curator, talks about how his artistic discourse is critical without ascribing to the, “New York simulationalism movement of 'critique'”, instead: “it invites a new interpretation of North American art over the last thirty years, to reconsider the rejection and unawareness of formalism, and the recognition (…) of diversity in the complex cultural influences and heritage developed by different generations of artists in Surrealism and the work of Marcel Duchamp.”

  • Exhibition view. Manuel Millares, 1992
    09 january, 1992 - 16 march, 1992

    In the year that marks the twentieth anniversary of the disappearance of Manolo Millares (Las Palmas de Gran Canarias, 1926 - Madrid, 1972), this exhibition takes a look back at the painter's brief, but intense, career. Millares played an important role in revamping artistic languages in Spain during the fifties and sixties, both as part of the Canary Island group LADAC (the Archers of Contemporary Art), founded in 1950, and with his participation in the creation of the El Paso group (1957-1960).

  • Liubov Popova. Painterly Architectonic (Still Life: Instruments), 1915. Oil on canvas. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid
    18 december, 1991 - 17 february, 1992

    There was constant desire to develop a new and absolute artistic language throughout the different art movements of the early twentieth century, especially those which end up linked to political projects. The principles of universality and overcoming mimetic art which these avant-garde trends are governed by, suppose an experimental review of the actual artistic components. In the Russian art scene of the first quarter of the century Liubov Popova (Ivanovskoe, Russia, 1889 - Moscow, 1924) stands out because of her dedication to the pursuit of an artistic vocabulary that would respond to the principles of Constructivism from the pictorial scene. She understood that pictorial construction was a precursor to real three-dimensional construction. The exhibition aims to highlight Popova as an artist-painter and not as an artist-engineer, posture and attitude that most of her peers adopt, according to the new ideal of post-revolutionary Soviet society. Despite this, as noted Magdalena Davroski, curator of the exhibition: "components of her concept of "construction" are essentially the traditional tools of every artist, but she interprets them as real materials."

  • Exhibition view. Confrontaciones. Arte último británico y español, 1991
    11 december, 1991 - 18 february, 1992

    The term that lends its name to this exhibition is used to bring the work of sixteen British and Spanish artists together in one unique space, selected for this third instalment of Confrontaciones (Comparisons). The aim is the positive and open comparison in art practices, conducted in different geographical locations by authors from the same generation. On one side, the specifics of the recent artistic past in each country (in Spain's case, the eighties is defined for the most part by pictorial practice) are reflected in this collection of work whereby artists share different aspects, attitudes and processes that are used to depict a critical dimension in their pieces. As vindicated by the selected works on display, and asserted by the art critic Félix Guisasola, at the beginning of this decade: “A trend towards objectualisation (sculpture, installation, objects) substantiates a development in the approach of art genres and bears witness to a change in the prominence of the artist (from expressionist gestures and attitudes to the autobiography or total concealment of the artist behind the opacity of the works).”

  • Exhibition view. Robert Therrien, 1991
    27 november, 1991 - 24 february, 1992

    This exhibition, made up of over sixty works by Robert Therrien (Chicago, 1947), opens the possibility of a more in-depth look at the artistic discourse of a young North American artist whose work has only recently started to receive international recognition, despite his career beginning at the end of the sixties. Therrien's art can be found, voluntarily, somewhere between painting and sculpture, blurring the boundaries of art practices; it recognises the simplicity of process, of formal references and the resulting work. Yet the artist eludes any classification and does not ascribe to current waves of contemporary art such as Post-minimalism.

  • 07 october, 1991 - 02 december, 1991

    The work of Nicolas de Staël (Saint Petersbourg, Russia, 1913/1914 - Antibes, France, 1955) typifies another possible route for post-war art - the pleasure of painting. In France after the Second World War painting is not only confined to vindicating its role as a medium for representing the experience of horror and human barbarity, as demonstrated by Alfred Otto Wols, Jean Fautrier and Jean Dubuffet, whose works mark a destructive reaction in contrast to European artistic and cultural traditions. de Staël goes beyond the division of war by tracing his own genealogy in avant-garde figures such as César Domela, Hans Arp, Henri Laurens and, primarily, Georges Braque and his compatriot, André Lanskoy. His painting cannot be defined as abstract, but drifts more between the experience and exploration of reality and is able to formulate a new figuration by arriving at the essence of forms through analysis. Over the space of ten years, de Staël's career starts with an initial admiration of the leading figures in the history of European painting (Tiziano Vecellio, El Greco, Jacopo Bellini, Andrea Mantegna, Jan Vermeer, Frans Hals, Rembrandt, Eugène Delacroix), and ends with the persistent questioning of the foundations of modern painting via Paul Cézanne and Vincent Van Gogh.

  • Salvador Dalí. Visage du Grand Masturbateur (Face of the Great Masturbator), 1929. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    01 october, 1991 - 02 december, 1991

    The surrealist movement, definitely visible and theoretically debated with the publication of the Manifeste du Surréalisme (1924), written by André Breton (Tinchebray, France, 1896 - Paris, 1966) is a cosmology organised by and about Breton himself. His revolutionary pretensions, which are visible in all his publications, expositions and determinations, are understood as the will of general subversion (through action) in all areas of daily life, starting from poetry and art and moving to ethics, religion and politics. Thus, Surrealism is not only an artistic and literary expression, but a stance against the traditional values of culture and the bourgeois society and against realism in art. He supports the idea of an inner model in all creative acts, of otherness, absolute automatism (applied to poetic and artistic practice) as well as the adoption of meta-artistic methods that come from psychoanalysis, such as hypnosis, which allow the release of human consciousness and a return to a primitive and primordial state of thought.

  • Jorge Rueda. Pepino (Cucumber), 1975. Photography. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    19 september, 1991 - 22 december, 1991

    The exhibition Cuatro direcciones. Fotografía contemporánea española. 1970-1990 contains a dual purpose. For one, it provides an overview of the names that have made up the history and practice of Spanish photography over the last twenty years, and secondly, it takes the first step towards creating a documented base which will be useful in the future for expanding its study and knowledge. The curator of the exhibition, Manuel Santos, has had the support of an international committee of experts in the selection of the photographers. Four areas or lines of work have been established for the presentation, they address the conceptual and stylistic differences of the fifty artists that are participating in the exhibition. These are: 1) "Reflection and concept", which shows the use of conceptual ideas and imagery of surrealist heritage, 2) "Dream and suggestion", where the authors develop concepts of insight and emotion, 3) "Documentary tradition" which comes from the natural order of life, focusing on social, cultural and political aspects and which sometimes refers to photojournalism and documentary photography, 4) "Means processes", in which the artists explore and push photographic means and materials to their limits, allowing them to develop a new image language.

  • Julian Schnabel. Epitafio (L.S.J.T) (Panel tumba V), 1989. Sculpture. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    16 september, 1991 - 31 october, 1991

    The Palacio de Velázquez is the venue for the exhibition organised by Grupo 16 in collaboration with the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. El Salón de los 16 is an initiative by the editorial group to promote the dissemination of Contemporary Art. In its first editions this annual conference focuses on bringing together the work of new generations of artists from Madrid though, as time moves on, the El Salón de los 16 broadens its plan to incorporate the whole of Spain. This, the eleventh exhibition, displays foreign artists' work alongside preeminent figures in Spanish art in what is considered an overview of the best exhibitions from 1990-1991.

  • Pablo Picasso. Mujer en azul, 1901. Painting. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía Collection, Madrid
    5 september - 10 november, 1991

    The exhibition Picasso, Miró, Dalí and the Origins of Contemporary Art in Spain, 1900-1936 seeks to articulate Spanish artistic production (in several and well-known cases produced outside Spain) based on the concept of "Art Nouveau". Eugenio Carmona, curator of this exhibition gives an instrumental value to this concept and explains it as a principle that underlies much of the art that is performed during the first decades of the twentieth century. In this type of art there is evidence of a desire for a renewal of artistic languages, the paradigm of which is identified by the Spanish artists in contemporary European trends. From this perspective, the exhibition proposes a debate with Spanish art in tune with the names and aesthetic and theoretical avant-garde ideas, gathered under the umbrella of Modernism, while at the same time embedded in them. In this way, Spanish artists that have as reference the various "-isms" (Cubism, Futurism, Ultraism (Ultraísmo), Surrealism and Realism) participate in the international dimension of avant-garde art. Still, as the curator points out, "Art Nouveau" was not the only option Spanish art had in the period between 1900 and 1936.